A stoma is where a section of bowel is brought out through an opening on your stomach area (abdomen). Your bowel movements (poo) are collected in a pouch or bag attached to the skin around your stoma.
Types of stoma
There are two types of stoma - a colostomy is formed from the large bowel and an ileostomy is formed from the small bowel.
Your surgeon or specialist nurse will explain why you need a stoma, what type of stoma you might have and how long you might need it for. Before your surgery, you will meet your stoma care nurse. They will show you how to look after your stoma and answer any questions you may have. You can contact your stoma care nurse for support at any time before or after your surgery.
When you go home from hospital, your stoma care nurse will give you some stoma supplies. Once you are at home, you will need to get further supplies from a chemist or from a stoma supply company. You will need a prescription from your GP and, if you are under the age of 60, you will need to sign a form to get free prescriptions.
If you have a temporary stoma, you will usually have another operation to reverse it. Your healthcare team will tell you when this is likely to happen. Some people have their stomas reversed after a few months, while others have their stomas for several years before they have a reversal. It can take a while for your bowel function to return to normal after your stoma is reversed.
Managing your stoma
Some people struggle to get used to their stoma and find it difficult to manage day-to-day life. Others find it affects the way they see themselves. Your stoma care nurse is there to support you and answer your questions.
Eating and drinking with an ileostomy
When we eat, the colon absorbs water and salts from our food. If you have an ileostomy, either temporarily or permanently, food will no longer reach the colon. This means you will need to make some changes to your diet.
After surgery, the output from the ileostomy is likely to be liquid. Over six to eight weeks, your body will adapt and the output may become slightly thicker, like toothpaste. Eating regularly can help with this. If you still have a watery output, speak to your stoma care nurse, GP or consultant. They can give you medicines that can help.
Some foods may cause blockages, increased output, wind or odour. For information on ways of managing these problems, read our leaflet, Eating and drinking with an ileostomy, which is part of our information pack, Your diet: living with and beyond bowel cancer.
Eating and drinking with a colostomy
If you have an ‘end colostomy’ then the output from your stoma is more likely to be formed and less frequent. If your colostomy is further up the large bowel, the output may be less formed (toothpaste consistency) and may work more frequently.
On the whole, once the food reaches the large bowel most of the digestive processes have been completed. This means that you do not need to follow a special diet unless you have been advised by your GP or dietitian. Following your operation and in the early days, certain foods or drinks may upset you, this is very individual. If you think a particular food or drink has upset you, leave it for a few weeks then try it again. Keeping a food diary can be helpful to identify these foods.
Some foods may cause wind, constipation or loose and runny stools (diarrhoea). For information on how to manage these problems, read our leaflet, Eating and drinking with a colostomy, which is part of our information pack, Your diet: living with and beyond bowel cancer. The pack also includes a food and symptom diary.
Colostomy Association provides support, reassurance and practical information to anyone who has, or is about to have, a colostomy.
IA (Ileostomy and Internal Pouch Support Group) is a support group run by and for people with ileostomies and internal pouches.
Updated March 2016. Due for review March 2018